To truly understand the risk to your software and systems, you need to approach security assessments from an attacker’s point of view—before a real attacker does. Trail of Bits’ Assurance experts provide more than basic penetration testing and vulnerability discovery; we’re engineers who have designed software and systems, and our goal is to help you harden your environment, without disrupting existing development and testing workflows. Our experts consistently review cutting-edge research, algorithms, and techniques, then conduct an analysis with our purpose-built tools, including Manticore, Slither, and McSema. The end result: improved overall security for your business.

Our Assurance team can help you with:

Binary analysis

How can you ensure your software is free of backdoors, is secure, and meets regulatory standards?

Software is often built using third-party components and libraries for which the source code is unavailable or is protected. If you can access the code, are you certain the binary was built from the same source?

Binary analysis is a necessary part of software security because it uncovers:

  • Vulnerabilities introduced in the compilation processes
  • Common weaknesses such as SQL injection, cross-site scripting, and buffer overflows
  • Malicious content such as backdoors and rootkits that were added without the author’s knowledge

But, a deep investigation of binary software requires highly-specialized knowledge and tooling. Without the right expertise, the process can be slow, difficult to scale, and requires monumental effort after each new release or patch.

Our automated binary analysis:

  • Identifies bugs in binary-only USB firmware
  • Synthesizes inputs that trigger patched vulnerabilities
  • Deobfuscates packed libraries
  • Finds functions used inside the binary
  • Uncovers authentication errors or backdoors
  • Quantifies the difference between two binaries

Beyond automation, your Trail of Bits project team will explain any discovered issues and help you understand best practices for remediation. The result: fewer vulnerabilities and assurance that your software is as secure as it can be.

Blockchain Security

Blockchain is quickly becoming a more-secure way for organizations to transact. While decentralization and continuous verification make Blockchain inherently more secure than other software, it is, at its core, software attackers can exploit.

Applications built on Blockchain are susceptible to bugs, social engineering, malware, and more—all the same exploit concerns as other software you build, buy, or deploy.

Our Blockchain security assessments help you understand:

  • Is it possible for an unauthorized party to gain administrative access to my smart contracts?
  • Are tokens within the contract managed and stored correctly?
  • Can participants manipulate bonding and transcoding protocols to gain an advantage?
  • Are backdoors present? Does the code contain common errors?

Trail of Bits doesn’t just understand Blockchain security, we build industry-leading tools that find and help fix vulnerabilities. We are the leaders in smart contract security assessments and the security implications of the Solidity language, its compiler, and the Ethereum Virtual Machine.

Our tool offerings include:

  • Manticore, a symbolic emulator capable of simulating complex multi-contract and multi-transaction attacks against EVM bytecode.
  • Ethersplay, a graphical EVM disassembler capable of method recovery, dynamic jump computation, source code matching, and binary diffing.
  • Slither, a static analyzer that detects common mistakes such as bugs in reentrancy, constructors, method access, and more.
  • Echidna, a next-generation smart fuzzer that targets EVM bytecode. The Assurance team will apply their knowledge of these tools with expertise in static analysis, fuzzing and concolic testing, and design-level risks to ensure your smart contracts are free from vulnerabilities and that you have the right tools and knowledge to ensure long-term success.


Modern cryptography underpins all secure communication and collaboration. Correctly implemented, cryptography maintains the confidentiality and integrity of data in even the most extreme circumstances. However, this high level of assurance is fragile due to the mathematically complex nature of cryptographic security. Not only do the underlying libraries need to be flawless, but an incorrect combination of primitives or API calls can introduce subtle and dangerous vulnerabilities. Even well known protocols like Bluetooth have been compromised by incorrect use of cryptographic primitives.

Trail of Bits has extensive experience crafting complex cryptographic libraries that are cutting edge and widely used. We know where to look for bugs, having dedicated so much time to building and testing cryptographic software. Whether you’re building a key management system or need assistance with the operational complexities of TLS 1.3, we can certify your product has the protection guarantees you need. Count on us to:

  • Review your implementation of an algorithm for mistakes that compromise its security
  • Assess the use of your chosen cryptographic primitives for correctness within the context of your application
  • Examine your cryptographic software for new or familiar side-channel attacks
  • Write custom bug-finding tools and integrate them into your current test suite
  • Develop new cryptographic software
  • Implement or audit novel cryptography—such as post-quantum or zero-knowledge algorithms—in your existing codebase

Our team of engineers will work with your developers on a spectrum of tasks ranging from finding bugs in existing code to building entirely new libraries that can be integrated into your codebase. We will work closely with you to develop a scope suited to your needs.

Deliverables will be custom to your situation and may include:

  • Clear and actionable descriptions of cryptographic flaws in your software
  • Exploit scenarios that provide context for the vulnerabilities
  • A comprehensive plan for mitigating both individual bugs and entire bug classes
  • Architectural and strategic guidance
  • Testing artifacts, like custom fuzzers or static analysis scripts
  • Long-form, well-researched writing on subtle or obscure areas of cryptography

Software Hardening

Rapid development lifecycles, coding errors, and out-of-date tools and techniques can lead to vulnerabilities in software that leave your organization open to exploit. Testing software for bugs, code flaws, manipulated binaries, over-provisioned access and permissions, buffer overflows, and more is necessary to reduce your organization’s attack surface.

Trail of Bits’ Assurance team assesses your software using an 18-point evaluation framework we call The Dan Test[NEEDS LINK]. Testing elements include:

  • Compilation
  • Source code management
  • Static and dynamic testing

If your software passes The Dan Test, we will provide recommendations for continuous testing and improvement. If, however, we find vulnerabilities, our Engineering team can work with you to bring your codebase up to the highest security standards and train your team on techniques and tools, including secure software updaters and low-level software libraries that Trail of Bits has built, for continuous security improvement and attack surface reduction.

Infrastructure Security

Projects in Go or RUST. Privileges on host level, cloud

Threat modeling

Organizations spend hundreds of work hours to build applications and services that will benefit customers and employees alike. Whether the application/service is externally facing or for internal use only, it is mandatory to identify and understand the scope of potential cyber risks and threats it poses to the organization.

Can the software be reached from an external source? What is the likelihood that an attacker would want access to it? If the software were exploited, what impact would that have on the organization from a business, operational, and financial point of view?

These are just a few of the questions your company needs to ask as you’re building, deploying, and updating applications and services.

But where and how do you start with an accurate threat model?

Trial of Bits has developed a comprehensive threat model that:

  • Proactively tests and identifies vulnerabilities and flaws in your software
  • Analyzes the possible effects of those vulnerabilities to your organization
  • Determines the probability of compromise
  • Calculates a risk score
  • Offers actionable remediation steps—for your internal or team to complete, or with Trail of Bits’ assistance

Our experts will walk you through a model that will keep your organization, your employees, and your customers infinitely more secure and dramatically increase the return on your software investments.